or branch retinal vein occlusion
Retinal vein occlusion is a common
vascular disorder caused by impaired venous blood flow.
It is second only to diabetes mellitus
as a vascular cause of impaired vision.
Sudden onset painless blurred vision
Less commonly the patient may present
with painful red eye due to neovascular glaucoma
as a result of recent central retinal
The visual acuity is reduced in central
retinal vein occlusion. However, the reduction is
dependent on the severity of the occlusion.
In branch retinal vein occlusion, the visual
acuity may be normal if the fovea
is not involved.
Relative afferent pupillary defect may
be present in patient with severe central retinal vein
Ophthalmoscopy reveals extensive intraretinal
and pre-retinal haemorrhage with distended
Refer within 24 hours.
Although there is no immediate treatment
that can restore the vision, it is important to
examine the patient for hypertension
and glaucoma. A blood test is usually performed for
full blood count, ESR and in young
patients auto-immune screening.
Follow-up in the clinic is arranged
so that those at risk of neovascular glaucoma may be
treated with laser pan-photocoagulation
A classical picture of central retinal
vein occlusion showing extensive
This hypertensive patient complains
of a sudden onset drop in his left vision.
Fundal examination reveals a left
superior temporal branch retinal vein
occlusion. There are multiple flammed
haemorrhages and cotton wool
spots along the occluded vein.
to sudden visual loss